Exams & Dissertation

Placement Exam

All incoming doctoral students must complete placement examinations. As your performance on these exams will influence your graduate courses, it is important to prepare sufficiently for them. It is strongly suggested that you study your class notes and texts so that your scores reflect your knowledge as accurately as possible. You should also review our recommended topics.

Following the placement exams, you will meet with a member of the Chemistry Department faculty to review the results and discuss the classes you need to take during your first year.

  • If you pass all of the exams, you will have greater flexibility in choosing courses to take, particularly those aligning with your research interests.
  • If you fail an exam, you will need to take remedial coursework in that area. That course is usually at the graduate level but could be at the undergraduate level if there is a significant gap in your knowledge.

General Principles of Analytical Chemistry; Spectrochemical Analysis: Molecular spectroscopy: UV/visible absorption, IR absorption, etc.; Atomic spectroscopy; Electroanalytical Chemistry: Potentiometric methods (pH, ISE); Voltammetry (DC Polarography, Pulsed polarography, Stripping analysis); Coulometry; and Chemical Separations: HPLC, GC, TLC, CE and CEC.

Atomic Structure; Symmetry and Group Theory; Molecular Structure and Bonding; Acid-Base and Donor-Acceptor Chemistry; The Crystalline Solid State; Chemistry of Main Group Elements; Oxidation and Reduction; and Coordination Chemistry.

Nomenclature; Structure, Hybridization, Resonance, Aromaticity; Acids and Bases; Stereoisomerism; Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations; Electrophilic Additions; Nucleophilic Addition at Carbonyl Groups; Nucleophilic Substitution at Carbonyl Groups; Enols and Enolate Ion Reactions; Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution; Free Radical Substitutions and Additions; Oxidations and Reductions; Spectroscopy; Synthesis and Analysis

Thermodynamics. Equations of State. Laws of Thermodynamics and State Functions. Mathematical Relationships in Thermodynamics. Chemical and Phase Equilibria Dynamics. Kinetic Molecular Theory; Chemical Kinetics. Mechanisms. Reaction Dynamics. Statistical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Chemistry: History and Concepts. Modern Quantum Mechanical Problems: Atomic systems. Symmetry. Molecular Orbital Theory.


Cumulative Exam

PhD students must take a cumulative exam starting at the beginning of the third semester in the program, although they may begin earlier if desired. Students choose one of the subdisciplines for their exam: analytical, organic, inorganic or physical (though they may elect, in consultation with their adviser, to take exams in more than one of the four subdisciplines). Each subdiscipline has its own testing guidelines.

Examination points are assigned according to three categories:

  • Pass — two points
  • Low pass — one point
  • Fail — zero

The student must accumulate a total of 10 points in seven examinations or 12 points in 10 examinations in order to satisfy the requirement. Students are disqualified from the PhD program if they accumulate less than 12 points after 10 exams.

Format: Closed book; three hours

Topics Covered

  • Optical spectroscopy
  • Mass spectroscopy
  • Separation methods
  • Surface analysis
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electronics

Part 1: Recent Literature

  • A-Page articles in Analytical Chemistry in the prior six (6) months
  • Recent papers (published in the prior twelve (12) months) related to Major Topics in major analytical chemistry journals

Part 2: Basic Texts on Major Topics

It is assumed that students are familiar with the contents of basic undergraduate/graduate texts for courses offered in this Department in analytical chemistry/instrumentation.

  • Text for CHEM 2122 (D.C. Harris, Quantitative Chemical Analysis, published by Freeman, New York, NY, 4th ed., 1995, 812 pages)
  • Text for CHEM 4122 (D.A. Skoog and J.J. Leary, Principles of Instrumental Analysis, published by Saunders, 4th ed., 1995, 700 pages)
  • Text for CHEM 4113 (A.M. Halpern and G.C. McBane, Experimental Physical Chemistry: A Laboratory Textbook, published by W.H. Freeman, 3rd ed., 2006, 608 pages)
  • Text for CHEM 6221 (J.D. Ingle and S. R. Crouch, Spectrochemical Analysis, published by Prentice Hall, Englewood, N.J., 1988, 589 pages)
  • Text for CHEM 6222 (C.M.A. Brett and A.M.O. Brett, Electrochemistry: Principles, Methods, and Applications, published by Oxford University Press, 1993, 464 pages)
  • Inductively Coupled Plasmas in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, A. Montaser and D.W. Golightly, 2nd ed., 1992 VCH, 2027 pages

Problem-solving skills will be regularly tested by selected problems in the outlined areas.

Part 1: Evaluation of Core Knowledge

The student should have a good working knowledge of advanced inorganic chemistry at the level of Chemistry 235/236. In addition, a knowledge of subject areas not covered in depth in these courses (e.g., periodicity) is also expected. For example, students should be able to answer questions covered in the exercises of these texts:

  • Inorganic Chemistry, Huheey, Keiter and Keiter

  • Inorganic Chemistry, Shriver, Atkins and Langford

Part 2: Evaluation of Inorganic Literature Through a Current Article

The student should be able to read and understand an article or communication from the recent inorganic literature and determine the following:

  • Why the work was performed

  • Experimental methods used in the investigation

  • Analysis of the results and conclusions

Articles will be extracted from the following journals and will have been in print for no longer than six months: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Inorganic Chemistry, Organometallics and The Chemistry of Materials.

Format: Closed book, two hours

Part 1: Evaluation of Core Knowledge

The student should have a deep knowledge of and ability to recall from memory the basics covered in standard first-course texts like Solomons, McMurry or Wade. Student should also demonstrate a more sophisticated and detailed understanding of material at the level of advanced texts like March and/or Carey & Sundberg as well as Silverstein, et. al.

Part 2: Evaluation of Organic Literature Through a Current Article

The student should be able to read an article from the organic and related literature critically and determine the following:

  • Purpose or intent of the investigation the methods used to study the questions
  • Results obtained
  • Analysis of the results
  • Conclusions drawn
  • Validity of the results, ascertained by reading through the experimental section

​​​​​Articles will be drawn from the recent literature (six to eight months) found in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the Journal of Organic Chemistry and Tetrahedron.

Each examination will pose questions from at least two of these four general areas:

  • Structure determination
  • Reaction mechanisms
  • Synthesis
  • Fundamental store of knowledge

Format: Closed book (an hour to an hour and a half) or open book (four to six hours)

Assessment Areas

  • Basic knowledge of physical chemistry
  • Creative problem-solving abilities in topical areas
  • Ability to critically evaluate specific papers found in the literature
  • Competence with error analysis, math tools, physical chemistry tools, computer programming and/or literature searching

Major Topics to Be Covered

  • Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics
  • Kinetics and dynamics
  • Spectroscopy
  • Quantum mechanics
  • Tools: error analysis, computer programming, literature searching and basic math skills


  • Students sitting their 7–10 exams should take exams covering all areas.
  • A record will be kept of the topic and type of exam taken by each student.
  • A schedule of all students and exams should be developed in October for the year.


Candidacy Exam

All PhD students must complete their candidacy exam before the end of their sixth semester.

All PhD students must write a research plan prior to taking the candidacy exam.

  • Plan should include the research objective, results of other current related research or literature, a detailed description of the experimental or theoretical work to be performed, preliminary results and an indication of how the research objective will be fulfilled.
  • Plan should be no more than 10 pages including figures and appendices, not including references.
  • Format must be Times New Roman size 12, 1.5-spaced, with one-inch margins.
  • The research adviser must approve the plan before submission to the Examining Committee (consisting of, at minimum, the research adviser and two other faculty members).
  • Plan must be electronically transmitted to the Chemistry Department and the Examining Committee as a PDF document at least seven calendar days before the scheduled oral examination.
  • The Chemistry Department office will notify faculty members when plan has been submitted and will forward it upon request.

The candidate begins the exam with 20-30 minutes of oral presentation to the Examining Committee with supporting media to explain the research and results. The committee then has the opportunity to ask questions and open up discussion.

The committee will assign either a pass or fail grade. In the case of a fail grade, the committee may opt to allow the student to rewrite the plan or repeat the examination within one month.

Regardless of the outcome, the committee may require additional coursework or other appropriate requirements to ensure a student’s preparation for dissertation research.



Upon entering candidacy, you are expected to work closely with the DGS and your Doctoral Committee. The doctoral committee consists of your director/co-director and two readers. The director or co-director must be a member of the department/program in which you are pursuing a PhD.

You will register for Dissertation Research credits while working on the dissertation, and until the required 72 credits are completed. If you are still working on your dissertation, have completed 72 credits, and are within the degree deadline, you may register for 1 credit of Continuing Research (CCAS 0940) until you have completed the Ph.D.

When the dissertation is complete and approved by the Doctoral Committee the student takes the Final Examination or Defense. The Final Examination or Defense is designed, scheduled and administered by your department. It is an oral examination conducted by the Final Examination Committee, which consists of your Doctoral Committee (director and two readers at a minimum) and two other examiners, at least one of whom must come from outside your department or outside GW. Your current or prospective immediate supervisor of employment is not permitted to be an examiner.

Once you have successfully completed the Final Examination and the committee has verified that any required revisions to the dissertation have been made, you must submit: 

See the CCAS Doctoral Student Handbook for more details.